# Voice Lab¶

Voice Lab is an automated voice analysis software. What this software does is allow you to measure, manipulate, and visualize many voices at once, without messing with analysis parameters. You can also save all of your data, analysis parameters, manipulated voices, and full colour spectrograms with the press of one button.

Voice Lab is written in Python and relies heavily on a package called parselmouth-praat. parselmouth-praat is a Python package that essentially turns Praat’s source code written in C and C++ into a Pythonic interface. What that means is that any praat measurement in this software is using actual Praat source code, so you can trust the underlying algorithms. Voice Lab figures out all of the analysis parameters for you, but you can always use your own, and these are the same parameters as in Praat, and they do the exact same thing because it is Praat’s source code powering everything. That means if you are a beginner an expert, or anything in-between, you can use this software to automate your acoustical analyses.

All of the code is open source and available on our GitHub repository, so if this manual isn’t in-depth enough, and you want to see exactly what’s going on, go for it. It is under the MIT license, so you are free to do what you like with the software as long as you give us credit. For more info on that license, see here.

Press this button to load sound files. You can load as many files as you like. At the moment, Voice Lab processes the following file types:

• wav

• mp3

• aiff

• ogg

• aifc

• au

• nist

• flac

## Remove Sound File¶

Use this button to remove the selected sound file(s) from the list.

## Start¶

Pressing this begins analysis. If you want to run the default analysis, press this button. If you want to select different analyses or adjust analysis parameters, go to the ‘Settings’ tab and press the ‘Advanced Settings’ button. Only the files selected (in blue) will be analyzed. By default we will select all files.

# Settings Tab¶

To choose different analyses, select the Use Advanced Settings checkbox. From here, you’ll be given the option to select different analyses. You can also change any analysis parameters. If you do change analysis parameters, make sure you know what you are doing, and remember that those same analysis parameters will be used on all voice files that are selected. If you don’t alter these parameters, we determine analysis parameters automatically for you, so they are tailored for each voice to give the best measurements.

## Save Results¶

Save Results saves two xlsx files. One is the results.xlsx file and one is the settings.xlsx file. Here you can choose the directory you want to save the files into. You don’t have to click on a file, just go to the directory and press the button.

### results.xlsx¶

The results file saves all of the voice measurements that you made. Each measurement gets a separate tab in the xlsx file.

### settings.xlsx¶

This file saves all of the parameters used in each measurement. Each measurement gets a separate tab in the xlsx file. This is great if you want to know what happened. It can also accompany a manuscript or paper to help others replicate analyses.

## Measure Duration¶

This measures the full duration of the sound file. There are no parameters to adjust.

## Measure Pitch¶

This measures voice pitch or fundamental frequency. This uses Praat’s Sound: To Pitch (ac)…, by default. You can also use the cross-correlation algorithm: Sound: To Pitch (cc)…. For full details on these algorithms, see the praat manual pitch page. Measure Pitch returns the following measurements: - Minimum Pitch - Maximum Pitch - Mean Pitch - Standard Deviation of Pitch - Pitch Floor - Pitch Ceiling

We use the automated pitch floor and ceiling parameters described here.

## Measure Pitch Crepe¶

This is not a Praat algorithm. This measures pitch using a convolutional neural network called the Crepe algorithm: Kim, J. W., Salamon, J., Li, P., & Bello, J. P. (2018, April). Crepe: A convolutional representation for pitch estimation. In 2018 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP) (pp. 161-165). IEEE. https://github.com/marl/crepe

### Automated pitch floor and ceiling parameters¶

Praat suggests adjusting pitch settings based on gender . It’s not gender per se that is important, but the pitch of voice. To mitigate this, VoiceLab first casts a wide net in floor and ceiling settings to learn the range of probable fundamental frequencies is a voice. Then it remeasures the voice pitch using different settings for higher and lower pitched voices. VoiceLab by default uses employs very accurate. VoiceLab returns minimum pitch, maximum pitch, mean pitch, and standard deviation of pitch. By default VoiceLab uses autocorrelation for Measuring Pitch, and cross-correlation for harmonicity, Jitter, and Shimmer,

## Measure Harmonicity¶

This measures mean harmonics-to-noise-ratio using automatic floor and ceiling settings described here. Full details of the algorithm can be found in the Praat Manual Harmonicity Page<http://www.fon.hum.uva.nl/praat/manual/Harmonicity.html>_. By default Voice Lab use To Harmonicity (cc)... You can select To Harmonicity (ac) or change any other Praat parameters if you wish.

## Signal to Noise Ratio¶

This is the ratio between the loudest peak in the signal and the background noise. It is not Harmonics-to-Noise Ratio.

## Measure Jitter¶

This measures and returns values of all of Praat’s jitter algorithms. This can be a bit overwhelming or difficult to understand which measure to use and why, or can lead to multiple colinear comparisons. To address this, by default, Voice Lab returns a the first component from a principal components analysis of those jitter algorithms taken across all selected voices. The underlying reasoning here is that each of these algorithms measures something about how noisy the voice is due to perturbations in period length. The PCA finds what is common about all of these measures of noise, and gives you a score relative to your sample. With a large enough sample, the PCA score should be a more robust measure of jitter than any single measurement. Voice Lab uses use it’s automated pitch floor and ceiling algorithm. to set analysis parameters.

Jitter Measures:

• Jitter (local)

• Jitter (local, absolute)

• Jitter (rap)

• Jitter (ppq5)

• Jitter (ddp)

## Measure Shimmer¶

This measures and returns values of all of Praat’s shimmer algorithms. This can be a bit overwhelming or difficult to understand which measure to use and why, or can lead to multiple colinear comparisons. To address this, by default, Voice Lab returns a the first component from a principal components analysis of those shimmer algorithms taken across all selected voices. The underlying reasoning here is that each of these algorithms measures something about how noisy the voice is due to perturbations in amplitude of periods. The PCA finds what is common about all of these measures of noise, and gives you a score relative to your sample. With a large enough sample, the PCA score should be a more robust measure of shimmer than any single measurement. Voice Lab uses use it’s automated pitch floor and ceiling algorithm. to set analysis parameters.

Shimmer Measures:

• Shimmer (local)

• Shimmer (local, dB)

• Shimmer (apq3)

• Shimmer (aqp5)

• Shimmer (apq11)

• Shimmer (ddp)

## Measure Cepstral Peak Prominance (CPP)¶

This measures Cepstral Peak Prominance in Praat. You can adjust interpolation, qeufrency upper and lower bounds, line type, and fit method.

## Measure Formants¶

This returns the mean of the first 4 formant frequencies of the voice using the To Burg algorithm. We first measure pitch to determine whether we should use 5500 Hz or 5000 Hz as the maximum formant value. Praat suggests using 5500Hz for women, and 5000Hz for men, based on findings from Escudero, P., Boersma, P., Rauber, A. S., & Bion, R. A. (2009). A cross-dialect acoustic description of vowels: Brazilian and European Portuguese. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 126(3), 1379-1393. It is not gender per se that is the reason these settings are used, but that low fundamental frequency can confuse some measures of low-back vowels, and changing this setting helps fix that. Voice Lab will never ask you to assume the gender of a person, so it uses a cutoff of a 170 Hz Fundamental Frequency determine analysis parameters, rather than gender. Voice Lab always measure with a maximum of 5 formants in order to reliably measure 4 formants.

## Vocal Tract Estimates¶

This returns the following vocal tract length estimates:

### Average Formant¶

This calculates the mean $$\frac {\sum _{i=1}^{n} {f_i}}{n}$$ of the first four formant frequencies for each sound.

Pisanski, K., & Rendall, D. (2011). The prioritization of voice fundamental frequency or formants in listeners’ assessments of speaker size, masculinity, and attractiveness. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 129(4), 2201-2212.

### Principle Components Analysis¶

This returns the first factor from a Principle Components Analysis (PCA) of the 4 formants.

Babel, M., McGuire, G., & King, J. (2014). Towards a more nuanced view of vocal attractiveness. PloS one, 9(2), e88616.

### Formant Position¶

Formant Position is set to only run on samples of 30 or greater because this measure is based on transforming the data using z-scoring, which is based on the population mean. Without a large enough sample, this measurement could be suspicious.

$$\frac {\sum _{i=1}^{n} {f_i}}{n}$$

Puts, D. A., Apicella, C. L., & Cárdenas, R. A. (2011). Masculine voices signal men’s threat potential in forager and industrial societies. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 279(1728), 601-609.

### Geometric Mean¶

This calculates the geometric mean $$\left(\prod _{i=1}^{n}f_{i}\right)^{\frac {1}{n}}$$ of the first 4 formant frequencies for each sound.

Smith, D. R., & Patterson, R. D. (2005). The interaction of glottal-pulse rate andvocal-tract length in judgements of speaker size, sex, and age.Journal of theAcoustical Society of America, 118, 3177e3186.

### Formant Dispersion¶

$$\frac {\sum _{i=2}^{n} {f_i - f_{i-1}}}{n}$$

Fitch, W. T. (1997). Vocal-tract length and formant frequency dispersion correlate with body size in rhesus macaques.Journal of the Acoustical Society of America,102,1213e1222.

### VTL¶

$$\frac {\sum _{i=1}^{n} (2n-1) \frac {f_i}{4c}}{n}$$

Fitch, W. T. (1997). Vocal-tract length and formant frequency dispersion correlate with body size in rhesus macaques.Journal of the Acoustical Society of America,102,1213e1222.

Titze, I. R. (1994).Principles of voice production. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

### VTL Δf¶

$$f_i$$ = The slope of 0 intercept regression between $$F_i = \frac {(2i-1)}{2} Δf$$ and the mean of each of the first 4 formant frequencies.

$$VTL f_i = \frac {\sum _{i=1}^{n} (2n-1)(\frac {c}{4f_i})}{n}$$

$$VTL \Delta f = \frac {c}{2Δf}$$

Reby,D.,&McComb,K.(2003).Anatomical constraints generate honesty: acoustic cues to age and weight in the roars of red deer stags. Animal Behaviour, 65,519e530.

## Measure Intensity¶

This returns the mean of Praat’s Sound: To Intensity… function in dB. You can adjust the minimum pitch parameter.

## Measure RMS Energy¶

This returns RMS amplitude, similar to ENERGY in Voice Sauce. You can adjust the start and end time of the analysis. If you leave both values at 0, it will measure the entire file.

## Measure Speech Rate¶

This function is an implementation of the Praat script published here: De Jong, N.H. & Wempe, T. (2009). Praat script to detect syllable nuclei and measure speech rate automatically. Behavior research methods, 41 (2), 385 - 390.

Voice Lab used version 2 of the script, available here https://sites.google.com/site/speechrate/Home/praat-script-syllable-nuclei-v2

This returns: - Number of Syllables

• Number of Pauses

• Duratrion(s)

• Phonation Time(s)

• Speech Rate (Number of Syllables / Duration)

• Articulation Rate (Number of Syllables / Phonation Time)

• Average Syllable Duration (Speaking Time / Number of Syllables)

You can adjust: - silence threshold mindb

• mimimum dip between peaks (dB) mindip. This should be between 2-4. Try 4 for clean and filtered sounds, and lower numbers for noisier sounds.

• minimum pause length minpause

This command really only words on sounds with a few syllables, since Voice Lab is measuring how fast someone speaks. For monosyllabic sounds, use the Measure Duration function.

## Measure Spectral Tilt¶

This measures spectral tilt by returning the slope of a regression between freqeuncy and amplitude of each sound. This is from a script written by Michael J. Owren, with sorting errors corrected. This is not the same equation in Voice Sauce.

Owren, M.J. GSU Praat Tools: Scripts for modifying and analyzing sounds using Praat acoustics software. Behavior Research Methods (2008) 40: 822–829. https://doi.org/10.3758/BRM.40.3.822

## Measure LTAS:¶

This measures several items from the Long-Term Average Spectrum using Praat’s default settings.

• mean (dB)

• slope (dB)

• local peak height (dB)

• standard deviation (dB)

• spectral tilt slope (dB/Hz)

• spectral tilt intercept (dB)

You can adjust: - Pitch correction - Bandwidth - Max Frequency - Shortest and longest periods - Maximum period factor

## Measure Spectral Shape¶

This measures spectral: - Centre of Gravity - Standard Deviation - Kurtosis - Band Energy Difference - Band Density Difference

## TEVA¶

This conducts TracheoEsophageal Voice Analysis, but can also be used on “normal” speech. Many of these measures are different than Praat functions, and overlap with other measures in Voice Lab.

This contains Praat scripts from: https://www.fon.hum.uva.nl/rob/NKI_TEVA/ This measures: - Mean Pitch - Standard Deviation of Pitch - Median Pitch - Voiced Fraction - Harmonics to Noise Ratio - Harmonics to Noise Ratio of high and low harmonics - Jitter - Shimmer - Band Energy Difference - Centre of gravity - Maximum Voicing Duration - Formant Quality - AST (acoustic signal typing) score

# Voice Manipulations¶

Voice Lab provides several voice manipulations.

## Manipulate Pitch¶

This manipulates pitch using the PSOLA method. By default Manipulate Pitch Lower and Manipulate Pitch Higher lower and raise pitch by -/+ 0.5 ERBs (Equivalent Rectangular Bandwidths) which is about -/+ 20 Hz at a 120 Hz pitch centre and about -/+ 25 Hz at a 240 Hz pitch centre. By default VoiceLab also normalizes intensity to 70 dB RMS, but you can turn this off by deselecting the box in the Settings tab.

## Manipulate Formants¶

This manipulates formants using Praat’s Change Gender Function. By default, Formants are scaled by +/- 15%. This manipulation resamples a sound by the Formant scaling factor (which can be altered in the Settings tab). Then, the sampling rate is overriden to the sound’s original sampling rate. Then PSOLA is employed to stretch time and pitch back (separately) into their original values.

## Manipulate Pitch and Formants¶

This manipulation raises and lowers both pitch and formants in the same direction by the same or independent amounts. This uses the algorithm described in Manipulate Formants, but allows the user to scale or shift pitch to a designated degree. By default, pitch is also scaled +/- 15%.

## Resample Sounds¶

This is a quick and easy way to batch process resampling sounds. 44.1kHz is the default. Change this value in the Settings tab.

## Reverse Sounds¶

This reverses the selected sounds. Use this if you want to play sounds backwards. Try a Led Zepplin or Beatles song.

## Scale Intensity¶

This scales intensity to an RMS value. Use this if you want your sounds to all be at an equivalent amplitude. By default intensity is normalized to 70 dB.

# Spectrograms¶

VoiceLab creates full colour spectrograms. By default we use a wide-band window. You can adjust the window length. For example, for a narrow-band spectrogram, you can try 0.005 as a window length. You can also select a different colour palate. You can also overlay pitch, the first four formant frequencies, and intensity measures on the spectrogram.

# Results Tab¶

This is where you can view results. You can select each voice file on the left and view each measurement result on the bottom frame. You can also view your spectrograms in the spectrogram window. You can change the size of any of these frames in order to see things better. Press Save Results to save data. All data (results & settings), manipulated voices, and spectrograms are saved automatically when this button is pressed. All you have to do is choose which folder to save into. Don’t worry about picking file names, Voice Lab will make those automatically for you.

• All data files are saved as xlsx

• All sound files are saved as wav

• All image files are saved as png